Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Ovarian cancer is a cancerous growth arising from different parts of the ovary. Most (90%) ovarian cancers are classified as "epithelial" and were believed to arise from the surface (epithelium) of the ovary. However, recent evidence suggests that the Fallopian tube could also be the source of some ovarian cancers. Since the ovaries and tubes are closely related to each other, it is hypothesized that these cells can mimic ovarian cancer. Other types arise from the egg cells (germ cell tumor)or supporting cells (sex cord/stromal). In 2004, in the United States, 25,580 new cases were diagnosed and 16,090 women died of ovarian cancer. The risk increases with age and decreases with pregnancy. Lifetime risk is about 1.6%, but women with affected first-degree relatives have a 5% risk. Women with a mutated BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene carry a risk between 25% and 60% depending on the specific mutation. Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of death from cancer in women and the leading cause of death from gynecological cancer.
''Histopathology and immunohistochemistry in diagnosing ovarian tumors'' is a simply today's most comprehensive source of guidance on diagnosing ovarian neoplastic lesions. This book offers prosperity of assistance in identifying all of surface epithelial, sex cord, germ cell derived tumors as well as metastatic and miscellaneous tumors of the ovary depending on the latest classification schemes. As a pathologist, you will find advice to build your ideal differential diagnosis and avoid misdiagnosis. The data presented here aid in selecting the most appropriate, sensitive and specific immuno-histochemical marker for each tumor entity. This work is supported with numerous diagnostic high quality illustrations for both histopathology and immunohistochemistry. It also covers the major clinical features and genetic and molecular alterations seen in various types of ovarian tumors.
A general introduction to the principles of diagnosis and treatment of children with brain tumors is presented. Molecular characterization of solid tumors is also presented. Molecular pathways provide putative targets for new therapies. High resolution magic spinning NMR spectroscopy is explained, which is used to determine metabolic profiles for small pieces of intact tissue and whole cells in culture. The differences between adult and pediatric brain tumors are outlined. It is emphasized that pediatric low-grade gliomas need lower doses of antidrugs such as cisplatin/etoposide. It is explained that tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes play a crucial role in the development and progression of human malignancies, including those in children. Neurofibromatosis type-1 is a common genetic disorder with a high prevalence in CNS abnormalities including tumors in children, which is discussed in detail. Various neuroradiological imaging modalities in children with leukemia are detailed. Also are detailed results of clinical trials in pediatric brain tumors, such as medulloblastoma, ependymoma, craniopharyngioma, low-grade glioma, high-grade glioma, brainstem glioma, and germ cell tumors, using radiotherapy. Considering the clinical importance of epilepsy in the primary brain tumors in children, its symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments (surgery and antiepileptic drugs) are discussed.
Treatment for Life threatening diseases like cancer has been the most discussed and prioritized point of concern to many scientists and researchers all over the world related to Medical Health and Allied Sciences. The various kind of combinations of interactions of other drugs with Anti cancer drugs such as Melphalan and 5-Fluorouracil has proved that there is definitely an increase in efficiency of drug action in killing tumor cells.Bleomycin is the drug in combination with Cisplatin and Etoposide would help in treatment of Non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT).Nanoparticles are also said to be very effective in Cancer eradication. Combinational therapies also help in providing an effective decimation of cancer cells. NPs are also said to be used in plasmonic photothermal therapies in order to eradicate cancer. The aim of this book is to make all of us understand the alarming rate of need to eradicate cancer in all forms by utilizing Recent Technological developments like Nanotechnology and save Millions of people every year from Death..!
Embryonic Carcinoma cells (EC) are malignant germ cell tumor that occurs most often in the testes.EC cells serves as a model for studying embryonic development in humans.These cells are pluripotent teratocarcinomas that are derived from transformed germ cells.EC cells are stem cells of such tumors and are generally considered to be the malignant counterparts of ES cells.The NTERA-2 cell line is pluripotent human teratocarcinoma cell.NTERA-2 shares many characteristic with human ES cell. Also, the global expression of these cells is highly similar to undifferentiated hESC expression. NTERA-2 cell as like their human counter part on treatment with Retinoic acid gets differentiated into a mixed population of cell of neuronal lineage. The study aims at monitoring the transcript abundance of genes that have previously been implicated in neuronal differentiation, namely PAX6, NOGGIN, NEUROD and NESTIN and also tries to throw some light on potential differentiation specific candidate.
This book describes the features in structural imaging of the most important pediatric brain tumors with the aim of enabling radiologists to make the correct differential diagnosis and to provide the pediatric oncologist with all the imaging information relevant to further management. The opening chapter is devoted to the complex subject of pediatric trials at the national and international levels and the importance of staging for stratification, differential treatment, and outcome. A general imaging protocol for children with brain tumors is presented, and individual chapters then identify key points for the differential diagnosis and staging of posterior fossa tumors, low- and high-grade gliomas, germ cell tumors, and craniopharyngiomas. The relevance of aspects such as tumor site and age to diagnosis is explained, and pitfalls associated with meningeal dissemination and treatment-related complications mimicking recurrence are highlighted. The importance of ensuring comparability of follow-up by use of standard MR (or CT) imaging is emphasized. In drawing on the lessons gained both from pediatric trials and from the author's own experience, this book will be invaluable for all radiologists.
The pineal region is an anatomic location where various intracranial tumors, in particular germ cell tumors and pineal parenchymal tumors, occur. Interestingly, pineal germ cell tumors are detected more frequently in Asian countries, including Japan, while pineal parenchymal tumors are less frequent in Asia than in the United States and Europe. This publication takes advantage of the knowledge and experience of Japanese experts in pineal tumors, with emphasis on epidemiology and pathological diagnosis. A variety of treatment modalities including radiotherapy, radiosurgery, surgical therapy and chemotherapy are also discussed. This valuable book will enhance the knowledge on pineal tumor treatment of not only neurosurgeons and radiation oncologists but also neurologists, neuro-oncologists, pediatricians and neuropathologists interested in pineal region tumors.