Erscheinungsdatum: 02.10.2012, Medium: Taschenbuch, Einband: Kartoniert / Broschiert, Titel: Brain Tumor Invasiveness, Auflage: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1994, Redaktion: Goldfarb, Ronald H., Verlag: Springer US, Sprache: Englisch, Schlagworte: Neurochirurgie, Rubrik: Medizin // Andere Fachgebiete, Seiten: 92, Informationen: Paperback, Gewicht: 215 gr, Verkäufer: averdo
Cell migration plays a vital role in many physiological processes, such as embryonic development and immunological defense, but also in pathological processes, such as tumor cell invasion. Amphoterin, also known as High-Mobility Group-Box protein 1 (HMGB1), is highly expressed in immature and malignant cells. Although it lacks a classical secretion signal, amphoterin is released from cells to regulate neurite outgrowth, cell migration and differentiation. Many extracellular functions of amphoterin are mediated by one of its cell surface receptors Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE), a multiligand receptor belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. This thesis concentrates on identifying molecular mechanisms through which RAGE mediates effects of extracellular amphoterin on cells. The results suggest that amphoterin and RAGE serve as a ligand-receptor pair having important roles in the regulation of neuronal process growth, survival and differentiation, and in the regulation of tumor cell invasiveness.
Breast cancer is the most common type of neoplasia in women. Most of hereditary cases are associated with mutations of breast cancer-associated genes (BRCA). Preventive mastectomy and chemoprevention are the only approaches available so far to prevent the development of neoplasia in patients with specific genetic background. However, side effects and invasiveness of these procedures make necessary the development of alternative strategies. This book describes a novel approach to prevent breast cancer based on the restoration of BRCA1 functional gene into target cells using an engineered virus. In fact viruses have developed an efficient mechanism to deliver their genetic material into target cells, virus-derived vectors take advantages of this ability to vehiculate transgenes cells. To this aim a lentiviral vector expressing BRCA1 gene was produced. Restoration of gene function was validated in tumor and primary cells derived from patient encoding an inactive form of BRCA1, that, following gene delivery, restored the ability to repair DNA damages upon exposition to ionizing radiations These results pave the way to develop novel preventative approaches against human breast cancer.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma is a fatality that conjures images of the worse kinds in the minds of the sufferer and those related. The therapeutic modalities employed are insufficient in treating the disease. Therefore, the understanding of the role of host immunity in treatment protocols is important. This research work is an attempt towards understanding the pathobiology of tumor invasiveness and the role of host immunity in defense against the metastatic carcinomatous cells in regional lymph nodes.
Despite recent advances in treatment modalities, the mortality for oral cancer is higher. The main factor responsible for bad prognosis is delay in diagnosis. Identification of biomarkers offers an opportunity for early detection of lesion. Among the various categories of substances that are shed into the body and circulation by the tumor mass,beta2-microglobulin, TSA and LBSA are of considerable interest for their potential diagnostic value. The easy availability of blood further adds to the value of their estimation. The results of the study suggested that the concentrations of beta2-microglobulin, TSA and LBSA significantly increases in all stages of oral cancer patients and correlates well with the progression of clinical symptoms. These biomarkers have good sensitivity, specificity and efficiency for oral cancer. Therefore, evaluation of these biomarkers, with TSA being cheapest among the three in terms of cost would be of immense help in assessing early malignant change, in increasing the accuracy of clinical diagnosis and also in assessing the spread and invasiveness of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The study is useful to medical and dental students as well as professionals.
P122RhoGAP/DLC-1 is a novel dual functional regulator of cell shape and motility and an antioncogenic gene product. Functions of p122RhoGAP/DLC-1 relate not only with cytoskeletal regulation but also subtle tuning of Ca2+ / phosphoinositide signaling. These are based on the intramolecular structure, especially domain structure of the molecule. I aim to explore the functional characterization of the START domain, a candidate domain for lipid binding and / or transfer , of p122RhoGAP/DLC-1. The process of tumor progression is still poorly understood. Mechanism for regulation of cell proliferation,cell motility and invasiveness are important for the development of cancer and potential target for cancer therapy. P122RhoGAP/DLC-1 has some functional domains such as RhoGTPase activating protein domain, which has been hypothesized to be the basis of its tumor suppressive actions and a steroidigenic acute regulatory(StAR) related lipid transfer START domain, both located in its C-terminal domain. The lipid binding function is still unknown in the case of p122RhoGAP/DLC-1.
Cancer is a diseases characterized by uncontrolled multiplication and spread of abnormal forms of the body's own cells. The terms cancer, malignant neoplasm (neoplasm simply means 'new growth') and malignant tumor are synonymous. Both benign and malignant tumors manifest uncontrolled proliferation, but the latter are distinguished by their capacity for dedifferentiation, their invasiveness and their ability to metastasize (spread to other parts of the body). In this chapter, we shall be concerned only with the therapy of malignant neoplasia or cancer. The appearance of these abnormal characteristics reflects altered patterns of gene expression in the cancer cells, resulting from genetic mutations. In simple terms, cancer is a group of more than 100 diseases that develop across time and involve the uncontrolled division of the body's cells. Although cancer can develop in virtually any of the body's tissues, and each type of cancer has its unique features, the basic processes that produce cancer are quite similar in all forms of the disease.