MRI based prediction of brain tumor outcome in stereotactic biopsy ab 35.99 € als Taschenbuch: . Aus dem Bereich: Bücher, Wissenschaft, Medizin,
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Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) is a growth-associated protein ubiquitously present in wide verity of organisms from yeast to mammals. In fact it is one of the 20 most abundantly expressed proteins in the cell. TCTP was initially identified in an Ehrlich ascites tumor cell lines, hence the name is . Subsequently, TCTP was demonstrated to be present in almost all normal cells. TCTP is also variously known as IgE-dependent histamine-releasing factor (HRF), p23/p21, and fortilin. TCTP is about 20-25 kDa in weight. The first structure of TCTP was solved by NMR spectroscopy in 2001 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Tertiary Structure Prediction of protein is applied to develop models of protein structure when the constraints from X-ray diffraction or NMR spectroscopy are not available. Tertiary structure prediction of protein is the bioinformatics approach that attempts to generation of new structure on the prior knowledge of protein structure. To predict or model the 3D structure of protein three different methods are use: homology (or comparative) modelling, threading and ab initio method. The 3D structure of protein is necessary for understanding of protein function.
In different cancers, for example, lung cancer, the time calculated is imperative to find the anomaly issue in target images. Gray Level Co-event Matrix (GLCM) is utilized for preprocessing of images and to feature extraction procedures to check the condition of the patient whether it is ordinary or irregular. Surface-based elements, for example, GLCM features assume a vital part of remedial image examination which is utilized for the identification of Lung cancer. In the event that lung cancer is effectively distinguished and anticipated in its initial stages, it lessens numerous treatment choices and furthermore, decreases the danger of intrusive surgery and increase survival rate. The proposed method will efficiently identify the position of the tumor in lungs using the probability framework. This will offer a promising outcome for recognition and diagnosis of lung cancer. In the proposed work, GLCM features are used for the prediction of lung tumor and tests are performed for performance analysis in comparison with the histogram and GLCM features, in which GLCM features are accurate in predicting lung tumor even if it takes more time than histogram features.
Respiratory motion causes an important uncertainty in radiotherapy planning of the thorax and upper abdomen. The main objective of radiation therapy is to eradicate or shrink tumor cells without damaging the surrounding tissue by delivering a high radiation dose to the tumor region and a dose as low as possible to healthy organ tissues. Meeting this demand remains a challenge especially in case of lung tumors due to breathing-induced tumor and organ motion where motion amplitudes can measure up to several centimeters. Therefore, modeling of respiratory motion has become increasingly important in radiation therapy. With 4D imaging techniques spatiotemporal image sequences can be acquired to investigate dynamic processes in the patient's body. Furthermore, image registration enables the estimation of the breathing-induced motion and the description of the temporal change in position and shape of the structures of interest by establishing the correspondence between images acquired at different phases of the breathing cycle. In radiation therapy these motion estimations are used to define accurate treatment margins, e.g. to calculate dose distributions and to develop prediction models for gated or robotic radiotherapy. In this book, the increasing role of image registration and motion estimation algorithms for the interpretation of complex 4D medical image sequences is illustrated. Different 4D CT image acquisition techniques and conceptually different motion estimation algorithms are presented. The clinical relevance is demonstrated by means of example applications which are related to the radiation therapy of thoracic and abdominal tumors. The state of the art and perspectives are shown by an insight into the current field of research. The book is addressed to biomedical engineers, medical physicists, researchers and physicians working in the fields of medical image analysis, radiology and radiation therapy.
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-workshop proceedings of the International Workshop on Brain Lesion, as well as the challenges on Brain Tumor Segmentation (BRATS), Ischemic Stroke Lesion Image Segmentation (ISLES), and the Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Outcome Prediction (mTOP), held in Athens, October 17, 2016, in conjunction with the International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, MICCAI 2016.The 26 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed. They present the latest advances in segmentation, disease prognosis and other applications to the clinical context.
In the new era of functional and molecular imaging, both currently available imaging biomarkers and biomarkers under development are expected to lead to major changes in the management of oncological patients. This two-volume book is a practical manual on the various imaging techniques capable of delivering functional information on cancer, including diffusion MRI, perfusion CT and MRI, dual-energy CT, spectroscopy, dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, PET, and hybrid modalities. This second volume considers the applications and benefits of these techniques in a wide range of tumor types, including their role in diagnosis, prediction of treatment outcome, and early evaluation of treatment response. Each chapter addresses a specific malignancy and is written by one or more acclaimed experts. The lucid text is complemented by numerous high-quality illustrations that highlight key features and major teaching points.
Nuclear physics is an exciting, broadly faceted field. It spans a wide range of topics, reaching from nuclear structure physics to high-energy physics, astrophysics and medical physics (heavy ion tumor therapy). New developments are presented in this volume and thestatus of research is reviewed. A major focus is put on nuclear structure physics, dealing with superheavy elements and with various forms of exotic nuclei: strange nuclei, very neutron rich nuclei, nuclei of antimatter. Also quantum electrodynamics of strong fields is addressed, which is linked to the occurrence of giant nuclear systems in, e.g., U+U collisions. At high energies nuclear physics joins with elementary particle physics. Various chapters address the theory ofelementary matter at high densities and temperature, in particular the quark gluon plasma which is predicted by quantum chromodynamics (QCD) to occur in high-energy heavy ion collisions. In the field of nuclearastrophysics, the properties of neutron stars and quark stars are discussed. A topic which transcends nuclear physics is discussed in two chapters: The proposed pseudo-complex extension of Einstein's General Relativity leads to the prediction that there are no blackholes and that big bang cosmology has to be revised. Finally, the interdisciplinary nature of this volume is further accentuated by chapters on protein folding and on magnetoreception in birds and many other animals.
This book deals with the essential factors in the personalization of treatment for primary breast cancer. These include host issues, lymph node surgery, radiation therapy, and preoperative systemic treatment requiring specialized knowledge, multidisciplinary care experience, techniques, and research. Locoregional treatment in conjunction with systemic treatments is another important factor, with options for local therapy significantly affected by genetic BRCA mutation. Axillary treatment issues have become top priorities in recent primary breast cancer care, and these are highlighted in the book's presentation of technological advances in lymph node mapping and diagnosis, axillary clearance in patients with nodal metastasis, and the role of axillary surgery. Attention is also given to locoregional treatment after preoperative systemic therapy. Because therapeutic impact differs depending upon biological characteristics such as tumor subtype, local therapy should be based both on tumor biology and on therapeutic response in parallel. Associated translational research and mathematical prediction tools such as nomograms also are introduced. This book provides the essence of primary breast cancer care, particularly its individualization with novel therapeutic concepts and strategies, and will greatly benefit physicians and clinical investigators in breast cancer institutions.